Kidney failure effects all over the body, so the patient may develope signs and symptoms related to any system of the body.
The most important effects of uremia on the body areLack of appetite, nausea and vomiting. Due to accumulation of salt and water in the body patient may develope edema (swelling), hypertension and shortness of breath due to accumulation of fluid in the lungs called, Pulmonary Edema.
Shortness of breath may also occur because of anemia due to a lack of erythropoietin (normally produced by the kidneys) and because of acidosis due to retention of acidic ions in the body in renal failure.
Due to lack of activated Vit-D3, and calcium in the body the bones become fragile and the condition is called Renal Osteodystrophy. Patients complain of bone pains, body aches and bones become liable to fractures. Due to a lack of calcium in the body, patients may complain of cramps and spasmodic contraction of the hand muscles, a condition called Tetany.
The major cause of the anemia (low hemoglobin) in renal failure is lack of Erythropoietin, but there might be other causes like.
1. Iron and folic acid deficiency due to decreased intake or due to decreased absorption from the gut.
2. Increased blood losses either because of frequent blood sampling or blood loss from the stomach due to the effect of uremic toxins upon the stomach.
3. There is a decrease in RBC (red blood cell) survival in a uremic atmosphere. Effects upon nervous system. It may present as decreased physical activity, lack of interest in daily work and decreased mental activity.
There might be a reversal of sleep pattern, i.e. patient sleeps in the day time and complains of insomnia at night. He may also have jerky movements of the limbs and finally in severe cases he may develope fits and unconsciousness.