It takes about 8-10 years to develop kidney failure due to high blood pressure, but this period also depend upon some other factors like severity of blood pressure, sex and race of the patient.
Poorer the control of blood pressure, earlier the kidney failure will develop. Moreover males and the black race are more prone to develop kidney damage due to blood pressure.
Initially there is a mild to moderate amount of proteins in the urine and later on waste products like urea and creatinine start to accumulate in the body due to the kidney failure.
Not only high blood pressure can damage the kidneys but also kidney diseases due to any other reasons can lead to high blood pressure. This high blood pressure further aggravates the renal damage and thus a vicious cycle starts.